Who Was The Oldest Supreme Court Justice – Steph Gerald Breyer (/ˈbr aɪ.ər/ BRY-ər; born August 15, 1938) is an American attorney and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1994 until his retirement in 2022. He appointed him. President Bill Clinton, replacing the retiring Judge Harry Blackmun. Ketanji Brown Jackson, nominated by President Joe Bid, was nominated to replace him. Breyer has close ties to the liberal wing of the court.
Born in San Francisco, Breyer attended Stanford University, Oxford University as a Marshall Scholar, and graduated from Harvard Law School in 1964.
Who Was The Oldest Supreme Court Justice
After studying with Associate Professor Arthur Goldberg in 1964–65, Breyer was a law professor and lecturer at Harvard Law School from 1967 to 1980.
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He is an expert in administrative law, and writes textbooks that are still used today. He held other prominent positions before his appointment to the Supreme Court, including Special Assistant to the United States Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust and Assistant Special Counsel on the Watergate Special Prosecution Force in 1973. Breyer became a federal judge in 1980, where he was appointed. to the US Court of Appeals. For the first appeal. In his 2005 book Active Liberty, Breyer made his first attempt to explain his view of legal theory, arguing that judges should seek to resolve issues in a way that encourages active participation in -Popularity and government decisions.
On January 27, 2022, Breyer and Speaker Joe Biden announced Breyer’s intention to retire from the Supreme Court.
On February 25, 2022, Bid appointed Ketanji Brown Jackson, a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia and one of Breyer’s law clerks, to replace him.
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Breyer wrote several opinions in Supreme Court cases such as Mahanoy Area School District v BL. and Google v. Oracle and famous distants challenged the legal principles of the dead in cases such as Glossip v. Ekkelt.
Breyer’s grandfather immigrated to the United States from Romania, settling in Cleveland, Ohio, where Breyer’s grandfather was born.
Breyer grew up in a low-income Jewish family. His father was an attorney who served as legal counsel to the San Francisco Board of Education.
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Breyer and his older brother Charles R. Breyer, who later became a federal judge, were active in the Boy Scouts of America and attained the rank of Eagle Scout.
Breyer attended Lowell High School, where he was a member of the Lowell Forsic Society and regularly debated in high school competitions, including against future California Governor Jerry Brown and future Harvard Law School professor.
After graduating from high school in 1955, Breyer studied philosophy at Stanford University. He graduated in 1959 with a Bachelor of Arts degree with highest honors and membership in Phi Beta Kappa.
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Breyer was awarded a Marshall Scholarship, where he studied philosophy, politics and economics at Magdal College, Oxford, obtaining the first degree of BA. in the year 1961.
He returned to the United States to attend Harvard Law School, where he was editor of the Harvard Law Review and graduated in 1964 with a Bachelor of Laws degree, magna cum laude.
Breyer served eight years in the United States Army Reserve, including six months of active duty in strategic military intelligence. He reached the rank of corporal and was honorably discharged in 1965.
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In 1967 Breyer married the Honorable Joanna Freda Hare, a psychologist and member of the British Government, daughter of John Hare, 1st Viscount Blakham and granddaughter of Richard Hare, 4th Earl of Listowel. They have three grown children: Chloe, an Episcopal priest; Nell; and Michael.
After law school, Breyer served as a law clerk to United States Supreme Court Justice Arthur Goldberg from 1964 to 1965. He served briefly as a fact-checker for the Warr Commission. , the last two years in the US Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division as a special . Assistant to the Attorney General.
In 1967, Breyer returned to Harvard Law School as an associate professor. He taught at Harvard Law until 1980, and held a joint appointment at the Harvard Knedy School from 1977 to 1980. At Harvard, Breyer was known as a leading expert on legal regulation.
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While there, he wrote two influential books on crime: Breaking the Vicious Circle: Toward Effective Risk Regulation and Regulation and Its Reform. In 1970, Breyer wrote “The Uneasy Case for Copyright”, one of the most obscure tests of copyright. Breyer is visiting professor at the College of Law in Sydney, Australia, University of Rome,
While teaching at Harvard, Breyer took several books that could not serve in the US government. He served as assistant special counsel on the Watergate Special Prosecution Force in 1973. Breyer was special counsel to the US Senate Judiciary Committee from 1974 to 1975 and served as the committee’s chief counsel from 1979 to 1980.
He worked with the chairman of the committee, Sator Edward M. Knedy, to pass the Aeronautics Act that closed the Aeronautics Board.
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On the last day of President Jimmy Carter’s administration, on November 13, 1980, when he was defeated for re-election, Carter appointed Breyer to the First Circuit, in the new seat created by 92 Stat. 1629, and was ratified by the United States Senate on December 9, 1980 by a vote of 80–10.
He received his commission on December 10, 1980. From 1980 to 1994, Breyer was a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit; he was a judge of the court from 1990 to 1994.
One of his duties as a judge was to oversee the design and construction of a new federal courthouse for Boston, beginning his interest in architecture and the Pritzker Architecture Prize.
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Breyer served as a member of the United States Supreme Court from 1990 to 1994 and on the United States Sting Commission from 1985 to 1989.
In the scing commission, he played an important role in reorganizing the criminal system of the federal government, by establishing the Federal Stcing Act, which was enacted to ensure uniformity in stcing.
In 1993, President Bill Clinton considered her for the seat vacated by Byron White before ultimately nominating Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
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But after Harry Blackmun resigned, Clinton nominated Breyer to be a justice of the Supreme Court on May 17, 1994. Breyer was confirmed by the Senate on July 29, 1994 by a vote of 87 to 9, and received his job in August. 3.
In 2015, Breyer struck down a federal law that prohibits judges from hearing cases in which they or their spouse or children have a financial interest in an involved company. His wife sold $33,000 worth of stock in Johnson Controls the day after Breyer joined the debate. This led him to return to compliance and join the majority decision in favor of the Johnson Controls company that was part of FERC v. Electric Power Supply Ass’n.
Breyer wrote 551 opinions during his 28-year career, not counting those related to legislation or the “shadow document.”
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In 2000, Breyer wrote the majority opinion in Stberg v. Carhart, which struck down a Nebraska law banning certain abortions.
The ruling struck down Louisiana’s abortion law that requires any doctor performing it to have access to a hospital within 30 miles. Breyer reiterated the “reasonableness and burden” test he created in Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt, which struck down nearly all of Texas’ abortion laws. In 2022, he filed a lawsuit in Dobbs v. Jackson Woman’s Health Organization, which overturned Roe v. Wade.
In Department of Commerce v. New York (2019), Breyer ruled by a 5-4 majority that the Csus Bureau had not followed proper procedures in submitting citizen inquiries. He was also one of the four justices who personally would have held the civil question unconstitutional. In a generally concurring opinion, he wrote: “Nevertheless, the decision was considered in many important respects. The Secretary did not take sufficient account of the issues that should have been central to his assessment, such as a high chance of a lack of money. , a small chance that a questions will provide other good citizen data, that appart has no need for good citizen data to begin with. The Secretary’s failure to consider the very important words that make his decision unreasonable”.
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On December 18, 2020, Breyer was one of three defendants in Trump v. New York. In a 20-page dissent, he argued that the court should not recuse itself from the case and should rule on behalf of the challengers, who want the court to block the Trump administration’s last-minute efforts to remove undocumented immigration from the csus.
The Csus ultimately did not remove the undocumented immigrants due to lack of time and subsequent passage of Executive Order 13986.
In Eldred v. Ashcroft, decided January 15, 2003, Breyer and Attorney General John Paul Steves filed a dissenting opinion. In his 28-page diss, Breyer argued that the existing 20-year copyright exemption provided by the Copyright Term Extsion Act (CTEA) was actually a permanent copyright grant that infringed copyright.
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