The Musician's Guide To Theory And Analysis Pdf – Six-Part Fugue in “Ricercar a 6” from the Musical Offering, in the Hand of Johann Sebastian Bach
In classical music, a fugue (/f juː ɡ / ) is a restrained, polyphonic compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a theme (musical theme) that is initially imitative (different pitches). on repetition) is presented in, often repeated. Compositions This should not be confused with the fuging melody, which is a song style popular and mostly limited to early American music (such as shape notes or “sacred harp”) and West Gallery music. A fugue usually has three main parts: an exposition, a development, and a final movement that marks the return of the subject to the tonic key of the fugue. Fugues can also have episodes—parts of a fugue where new material is heard, depending on the subject—strato, where the subject of the fugue “overlaps” itself with different voices, or a recapitulation.
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A popular compositional technique in the Baroque era, the fugue was important in demonstrating harmony and tonal mastery because it provided counterpoint.
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In the Middle Ages, the term was used broadly for all works in the canonical style; By the Renaissance, he played exclusively imitative works.
The term fugue describes what is generally considered the most complete process of imitative counterpoint.
Which tone is repeated in each voice (after the first voice states the theme, the second voice repeats the theme at a different pitch, and the other voices repeat the same); When each voice completes the theme, the presentation is complete. A connecting passage, or episode, often then develops from material heard earlier; Other “attempts” of the subject are heard in respective keys. Episodes (if applicable) and efforts are usually alternated until the “last effort” of the subject, by which time the music returns to the opening key, or tonic, often after the final material, the coda.
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The form evolved from several earlier contrapuntal compositions during the 18th century, such as resercari, capriccios, canzonas, and fantasias.
The famous fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) composed works of Jan Pieterzoon Sweelink (1562-1621), Johann Jacob Froberger (1616-1667), Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706), G. 1515 1588). 1643), Dierich Buchthood (ca. 1637-1707) and others.
With the decline of the sophisticated D styles of the Baroque period, the central role of the fugue declined, gradually yielding to the sonata form, and the symphony orchestra rose to a prominent position.
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Nevertheless, composers continued to write and study fugues for various purposes; Appears in the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
The dramatic word fugue originated in the 16th century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fugue. This, in turn, comes from Latin, also fuga, which itself is related to fugere (“to flee”) and fugara (“to flee”).
Variants include fugetta (“short fugue”) and fugato (a fugal-style passage within another work that is not a fugue).
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A fugue begins with an exposition and is written according to certain predetermined rules; In later sections the composer has more freedom, although a logical key structure is usually followed. Further attempts by the subject will occur during the fugue, repeating the material present at the same time.
What follows is a diagram showing a fairly common fugal outline and an explanation of the processes involved in creating this structure.
The fugue begins with the presentation of the theme by only one voice in the tonic key.
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After the subject statement, the second voice asks and narrates the subject with the subject transposed to another key (usually dominant or subordinate), known as the response.
In order for the music to work smoothly, you may need to modify it slightly. If the answer is an exact copy of the subject according to the new key, with the same intervals as the first statement, it is classified as a correct answer; If the intervals change to maintain the sound, it is an acoustic response.
JS An example of a sound response in Bach Fugue No. 16 in G minor, BWV 861, from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1. The first note of the subject, D (in red), is a dominant dominant note, which requires the first note of the response (in blue) to sound. Like a tonic, g.
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An acoustic response is usually invoked when the subject begins with a dominant dominant note, or when there is a dominant dominant note very close to the beginning of the subject.
To avoid weakening the musical key, this note is transposed to the tonic in fourths rather than fifths in the supertonic. For the same reason, replies are also used in the subsystem.
While the response is being spoken, the voice previously heard by the subject continues with the new material. If this new material is used in subsequent utterances of the subject, it is called a countersubject; If the accompanying material is heard only once, it is simply called free counterpoint.
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A fifth interval is converted to a fourth (unsatisfied) and therefore cannot be used in invertible counterpoint, without preparation and resolution.
A distinction is made between the use of free counterpoint and the regular countersubject that accompanies the subject/response fugue, because in order for the countersubject to be heard with the subject in more than one instance, it must be able to sound correctly above or below. is subject , and must therefore be imagined in invertible (double) counterpoint.
In acoustic music, inverted counter verses must be written according to certain rules because many interval combinations, although acceptable in a particular rhythm, are no longer allowed on inversion. For example, when the note “G” is played one tone lower than the note “C”, an interval of a fifth is formed, which is considered consonant and perfectly acceptable. When this interval is reversed (“G” in the lower voice to “C” in the upper voice), it forms a fourth, which is considered an anomaly in tonal contrapuntal practice and requires special treatment, i.e. preparation. and the solution, if it is to be used.
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The counter-subject, if it sounds as well as the answer, is transposed to the answer’s pitch.
Each voice responds with its own theme or response, and other countersubjects or free counterpoint may also be heard.
When an aural response is used, it is common for the performance of alternate subjects (S) with responses (A), however, in some fugues this order is sometimes reversed: e.g. See SAAS arrangement fugue no. 1 in C major, BWV 846, J.S. Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1. A short codat is often heard combining different statements of subject and response. It helps to play the music smoothly. The caudate, like other parts of exposure, can be used in the rest of the joint.
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The first response should be as soon as possible after the initial statement of the subject; Therefore, the first codeate is often too short or not needed. In the above example, this is the case: the subject ends on the second beat quarter (or crochet) B♭ third beat corresponding to the initial G response. Subsequent codas can be quite long and often (a) develop material heard so far in the subject/response and countersubject and possibly introduce ideas heard in another countersubject or free counterpoint that (b) Delays and such advance the pitch. The effect of returning to the tonic as well as trying the subject again in a different voice.
The presentation usually ends when all voices have made a statement about the topic or answer. In some fugues, there will be an unnecessary attempt at exposition, or an additional presentation of the theme.
Additionally, in some fugues the effort of one of the voices may be reserved for later, for example in the pedals of an organ fugue (see JS Bach’s Organ Fugue in C Major, BWV 547).
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Other attempts at the theme follow this initial exposure, either immediately (as in Fugue No. 1 in C major, BWV 846 of the Well-Tempered Clavier) or separated by episodes.
Each episode has the primary function of a transition for the subject’s next attempt in a new key,
André Gedalge states that the fugue episode is based primarily on a series of imitations of a fragmented subject.
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Other subject attempts, or intermediate attempts, occur throughout the fugue. They must state or respond to the entire topic at least once, and may be heard in counter-topics from the exhibit, new counter-topics, complimentary counter-points, or a combination of any of these. It is unusual to attempt to present the subject in the middle with only one voice as in an exposition; Rather, it is usually heard with at least one countersubject and/or other complimentary contrapuntal accompaniment.
The intermediate is at different heights than the initial. As shown in
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