Musicians Born In 1963 – John William Coltrane (September 23, 1926 – July 17, 1967) was an American jazz saxophonist, bandleader and composer. He is one of the most influential and recognized figures in the history of jazz and music from the 20th century.
Born and raised in North Carolina, Coltrane moved to Philadelphia after graduating from high school where he studied music. Working with bebop and hard bop idioms early in his career, Coltrane helped pioneer the use of the mode and was one of the players at the forefront of free jazz. He led at least 50 recording sessions and appeared on numerous albums by other musicians, including trumpeter Miles Davis and pianist Thelonious Monk. Throughout his career, Coltrane’s music took on an increasingly spiritual dimension, as evidenced by his critically acclaimed album A Love Supreme (1965) and others.
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Decades after his death, Coltrane remains influential and has received several posthumous awards, including a special Pulitzer Prize, and he was canonized by the African Orthodox Church.
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(1964–1982), bassist; Ravi (born 1965), saxophonist; and Oran (born 1967), saxophonist, guitarist, drummer and singer.
Coltrane was born in a shared apartment at 200 Hamlet Avue in Hamlet, North Carolina, on September 23, 1926.
He grew up in High Point, North Carolina and attended William Pn High School. During high school, Coltrane played clarinet and alto horn in a community band
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Before switching to saxophone in the fall of 1940, having been influenced by the likes of Lester Young and Johnny Hodges.
In December 1938, his father, aunt and grandfather died within a few months, so he was raised by his mother and close relatives.
In June 1943, shortly after graduating from high school, Coltrane and his family moved to Philadelphia, where he found work at a sugar refinery. In September of that year, his 17th birthday, his mother bought him his first saxophone, an alto.
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From early to mid-1945 he had his first professional work: a “cocktail lounge trio” with piano and guitar.
An important moment in Coltrane’s musical development occurred on June 5, 1945, when he saw Charlie Parker perform for the first time. In a 1960 DownBeat magazine article, he recalled, “The first time I heard Bird play, it hit me right between the eyes.”
To avoid being drafted by the Army, Coltrane enlisted in the Navy on August 6, 1945, the day the first American atomic bomb was dropped on Japan.
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He trained as a midshipman at the Sampson Naval Training Station in southern New York before being sent to Pearl Harbor,
By the time he reached Hawaii in late 1945, the fleet was in decline. Coltrane’s musical talent was recognized, and he became one of the few Marines to serve as a musician without a musician’s rating when he joined the Melody Masters, a swing band.
Because the Melody Masters was an all-white band, Coltrane was considered a guest artist so as not to alert his superiors to his participation in the band.
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He continues to perform other non-playing duties with the band, including kitsch and security detail. In that service, he has taken a leadership role in the band. His first recording, an informal session in Hawaii with naval musicians, took place on July 13, 1946.
He was officially discharged from the Navy on August 8, 1946. He was awarded the American Campaign Medal, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, and the World War II Victory Medal.
After being discharged from the Navy as a seaman first class in August 1946, Coltrane returned to Philadelphia, where the city’s vibrant jazz scene gave him many opportunities to study and play.
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Coltrane used G.I. Bill to play at the Granoff School of Music, where he studied music theory with jazz guitarist and composer Dnis Sandole.
Coltrane also took saxophone lessons with Matthew Rastelli, a saxophone teacher at Granoff, once a week for about two or three years, but the lessons stopped when Coltrane’s G.I. Billing funds are running out.
After touring with King Kolax, he joined a band led by Jimmy Heath, who had been introduced to Coltrane’s playing by his former Navy mate, trumpeter William Massey, who had played with Coltrane in the Melody Masters.
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Coltrane called this time “a wider area than the list opened up to me. There’s a lot of stuff that people like Hawk [Coleman Hawkins] and B [Webster] and Tab Smith were doing in the ’40s that I don’t know about. , but I feeling emotional.”
A major influence, according to saxophonist Odean Pope, was the Philadelphia pianist, composer and theorist Hasaan Ibn Ali. “Hasaan is a clue to the … system that Trane uses. Hasaan is a big influence on Trane’s melodic concept.”
Coltrane was fanatical about training and developing his craft, practicing “25 hours a day” according to Jimmy Heath. Heath recalled an incident in a San Francisco hotel where, after the complaint was issued, Coltrane took the horn out of his mouth and practiced his fingers for a full hour.
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Such is the common devotion that he sleeps with the horn still in his mouth or practices a single note for hours on d.
Charlie Parker, whom Coltrane first heard while in the Navy, became his idol, and he and Coltrane played together occasionally in the late 1940s. He was a member of a group led by Dizzy Gillespie, Earl Bostic and Johnny Hodges in the early to mid-1950s.
In 1955, Coltrane was freelancing in Philadelphia while studying with Sandole when he received a call from trumpeter Miles Davis. Davis had been successful in the 1940s, but his reputation and work had been partially damaged by heroin addiction; he is active again and intends to form a quintet. Coltrane participated in this edition of Davis’ band (known as the “First Great Quintet” – along with Red Garland on piano, Paul Chambers on bass and Philly Joe Jones on drums) from October 1955 to April 1957 (with some absences). During this period, Davis released several influential recordings that showed the first signs of Coltrane’s growing abilities. The quintet, represented by two marathon recording sessions for Prestige in 1956, produced the albums Cookin’, Relaxin’, Workin’ and Steamin’. The “First Great Quintet” disbanded due to Coltrane’s heroin addiction.
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In late 1957, Coltrane worked with Thelonious Monk at New York’s Five Spot Café and played in Monk’s quartet (July–December 1957), but due to contractual conflicts he participated in only one official studio recording session with this group. . Coltrane recorded many sessions for Prestige under his own name during this time, but Monk refused to record for his old label.
A personal recording made by Juanita Naima Coltrane of the group’s 1958 reunion was released by Blue Note Records as Live at Five Points—Discovery! in 1993. A high-quality tape of a concert given by this quartet in November 1957 was later found and released by Blue Note in 2005. Recorded by Voice of America, the performance confirmed the group’s reputation and the resulting album, Thelonious Monk Quartet with John Coltrane at Carnegie Hall, highly rated.
Blue Train, Coltrane’s only date as head of Blue Note, featuring trumpeter Lee Morgan, bassist Paul Chambers and trombonist Curtis Fuller, is often considered the best album of this period. Four of the five tracks are original Coltrane compositions, and the title tracks, “Momt’s Notice” and “Lazy Bird,” have become standards.
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Coltrane joined Davis in January 1958. In October of that year, jazz critic Ira Gitler coined the term “sound sheet”
To describe Coltrane’s style developed with Monk and perfected in the Davis group, now a sextet. The game is compressed and runs at a fast pace in notes per minute. Coltrane recalled, “I found that there were several chord progressions to play at the time of the give, and sometimes what I was playing couldn’t come out in eighth notes, sixths, or triplets. I had to put notes in unev .groups like five and seven to get in whole.”
Coltrane remained with Davis until April 1960, working with alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley; pianists Red Garland, Bill Evans and Wynton Kelly; bassist Paul Chambers; and Philly drummers Joe Jones and Jimmy Cobb. During this time he participated in the Davis Milestones and Kind of Blue sessions and the recordings of the Miles & Monk concerts in Newport (1963) and Jazz on the Plaza (1958).
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During this period, Coltrane recorded Giant Steps (1960), an album released as a lead for Atlantic that contained only his compositions.
The album’s title track is considered to be one of the most difficult chord progressions in a much-played jazz composition,
The development of these cycles led to further experiments with melody and harmony that continued throughout his career.
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One of Coltrane’s most acclaimed recordings, “Giant Steps” has a more complex harmonic structure than that used by jazz musicians of the time.
Coltrane formed his first live quartet in 1960 for a performance at the Jazz Gallery in New York City.
After moving through diff
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