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William P. Malm is Professor Emeritus of Musicology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His publications include Hogaku Rokukei.
Music In Japanese
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Japanese music, the art of combining voices and instrumental sounds for the beauty of form and emotional expression, is practiced in Japan. South Korea served as a bridge for many Chinese musical ideas to Japan, and was influenced by its own court music. The existence of a North Asian tribal tradition called the Ainu culture that remains in Hokkaido should also be considered. It should be pointed out, however, that the island of Japan was able to develop its own characteristics in isolation without the serious Chinese and Mongolian influences found in mainland culture. Therefore, in the following discussion, all “foreign” elements are placed within a matrix of traditions and styles characteristic of Japan.
Ancient Chinese sources and modern archaeological data provide the oldest insights into Japanese music. Archaeologists have found Japanese Neolithic people and materials dating to the 11th millennium BC. According to some scholars, pottery remains of the Jamaican culture have been found. Among the artifacts found in the late Yayoi period (c.300 BC to c.250 AD), the most important musical discoveries are:
Bronze bell. These indicate the adoption of Chinese metallurgy by the local population. The shape of the bell and the location of the remains suggest that they may have entered the Japanese archipelago with migrating tribes from North Asia.
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That Japan gradually came to be ruled by a group known as the Yamato clan became even more evident during the Kofun period (c. 250-500 AD), leading to the present Emperor system. Concrete evidence of its musical activity was first found in several tomb figurines (haniva) that superseded the early Asian tradition of human sacrifice upon the death of the leader. one
A man was seen playing barrel drums with sticks, while another man sat with a four- or five-string board zither on his lap. Crotal bells (pellets or jingle bells) can be seen on the clothing, and there are also some statues believed to be of the singer. This zither is of particular interest because it is related to the Korean kayagam, which appeared in the Kaya Kingdom (present-day South Korea’s central coast) in at least the 6th century AD. This may or may not be an early example of carts
, a six-string zither with a movable bridge found in Japanese Shinta music. Survive in the form of Crotalbell
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It is a characteristic instrument only for Bell Tree and Shinta Dance. Although it is a Chinese history book from the 3rd century, there are many descriptions in which a different person appears as a singer and the existence of a drum player is confirmed.
, 297 AD) tells of the natives of Japan singing and dancing during funerals. This source also mentions two features of his that are well known in Shinto today: his concern for purification and his use of clapping when offering prayers in front of shrines.
References to shamanism can be found in Chinese writings and are of particular interest to those associated with the North Asian aspect of Japanese culture. In that context, we must not forget that the Ainu were as populous and strong as the new Japanese when the Yamato dynasty was founded. A war between the Japanese and the Ainu is described in a 6th-century Chinese book.
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(513), and he, like the 19th-century American Indians, was an Ainu who recognized him as a mercenary in a band of Japanese troops sent to aid the Korean Silla Kingdom in the 7th century. Chinese
History books (630 AD) also mention Ainu-like tattooed people, as well as five-stringed zithers and flutes. Ainu culture today also maintains the Jewish harp, although not the flute.
A zither with 2 to 5 strings. It differs from the early grave lap zither in shape and playing position, and is played like a banjo with open strings in both hands. Extant Ainu shamanism has similar forms in early Shinto and in the extant Japanese folklore tradition of yama-onna. However, the guttural vocal style and polyphonic textures of today’s Ainu music seem culturally oriented north rather than south or west. Perhaps the Ainu are a living link between modern civilization and the life depicted in ancient Chinese texts.
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As the Japanese gradually moved the Ainu northward, the Ainu solidified their internal structure and established strong ties to continental culture. Records say that in 453, the Korean emperor of Silla (Japanese Shiragi) sent 80 musicians to the funeral of the Japanese ruler. Chinese Buddhism was formally introduced as a religion to Japan in his 6th century, when selected converts were sent to China for proper training. in the rituals of that faith (and thus also in music). The Korean musician Mimaji (mimashi in Japanese) is credited with introducing masquerade and entertainment (
) entered the Japanese court in 612. By the 8th century, Japan had produced its own first written histories, the Kojiki (713, “Record of Ancient Matters”) and the Nihon Shoki (720, “Nihonshoki”). Musical sources in Japanese mythology are used as entertainment. It can also be said that the gods were given to lure Amaterasu into the cave. Indirect references to music appear in the book’s semi-historical accounts of early court activities. In addition
It contains nearly 200 poetic texts, many of which appear to derive from the oral music tradition. This article needs additional citations for verification. Help improve the article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find Source: “Japanese Traditional Music” – News Newspapers Books Scholars JSTOR (June 2019) (Learn how and how to remove this template message)
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Japanese classical music is Japanese folk or traditional music. Japan’s Ministry of Education classifies hagaku (hogaku, literally “music of Japan”) as separate from other traditional musical forms such as gagaku (court music) and shamyō (Buddhist chants). However, many ethnomusicologists view fagaku in a broader sense. sse, and others as derived forms.
Outside ethnomusicology, however, Hagaku generally refers to Japanese music from his 17th century to his mid-19th century.
There are many theater forms in Japan in which music plays an important role. The main forms are Kabuki and Noh.
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Noh (Noh) or Nogaku (Nohgaku) music is a type of stage music used in Noh theaters. Nohgaku is performed with cymbals, an instrument called hayashikata. The instruments used are taiko drums, large hourglass-shaped drums called otsuzumi, small hourglass-shaped drums called kotsuzumi, and noh flutes. Yokyoku, vocal music, and hayashi music are performed in the Noh theater.
Kabuki (Kabuki) is a Japanese theater form known for its highly stylized dance and songs, and elaborate makeup by a predominantly male cast. The first examples of Kabuki used Noh music. Kabuki then began to incorporate other instruments such as the shamisen. Kabuki music can be classified into three categories: “Geza”, “Shosa music”, and “Ki/suke”.
Shimoza consists of music and sound effects performed on the stage behind black curtains called black curtains. Geza music can be divided into three types. The first is “uta” or “pata”. I sang a song with Sami. Usually several Utah singers sing together. The second type is called Aikata. Contains shami music without vocals. The third is “Narimono”. Narimono is played with small percussion instruments
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Xhosa music encompasses the music heard on stage and accompanies acting and dancing. Shosaku music includes the musical styles of Takemoto, Nagauta, Tokiwazu, and Kiyomoto. Mr. Takemoto will accompany the performance. Nagauta, Tamo, and Kiyomoto dance in Kabuki. Mr. Takemoto basically recites the scary part of the play. The actors try to match their lines to Takemoto’s rhythm. This is known as “riding the thread”.
Nagauta is one of the most common forms of him in geza. It consists of singers called Uttatakata and shamis players called Shamiskata. Utakata sits on the stage to the right of his dancers and Shamiskata sits to the left of the stage. The shamisukata uses a hosojao (thin neck) shamisu, and can produce high notes and play delicate melodies.
Tokiwatsu consists of a recitation called taya and a shamisukata using a middle rod. Tokiwazu is similar to Kiyomoto’s music